Djibouti is a republic with a strong elected president and a weak legislature. In 2010 parliament amended the constitution to remove term limits, facilitating the 2011 and 2016 re-election of President Ismail Omar Guelleh for a third and fourth term. Three independent and two opposition candidates also participated in the April presidential election. International observers from the African Union, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and the Arab League characterized the election as “peaceful,” “calm,” and “sufficiently free and transparent,” but noted irregularities. Most opposition groups did not characterize the elections as free and fair. Opposition parties participated in February 2013 legislative elections for the first time in 10 years; perceived flaws in the vote fueled months of protest and an opposition boycott of the National Assembly until the signing of a framework agreement with the government in 2014. International observers from the African Union, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the Arab League had characterized the 2013 elections as free and fair, an assessment disputed both domestically and by some other international observers. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over security forces. The most serious human rights problems included: the government’s abridgement of the ability of citizens to choose or significantly influence their government by suppressing the opposition and refusing to allow several opposition groups to form legally recognized political parties; harassing, abusing, and detaining government critics; denying the population access to independent sources of information; and restricting freedoms of speech and assembly.